Fenestrated endovascular repair for diseases involving the aortic arch

  • OBJECTIVE: Extension of aortic disease to the aortic arch is common, frequently requiring cervical debranching procedures to maintain patency of supra-aortic branches. Endovascular aortic arch repair is an attractive alternative in the treatment of aortic arch disease for high-risk patients with thoracoabdominal diseases encroaching on the arch. The aim of our study was to report our experience of fenestrated endovascular repair in the aortic arch.

    METHODS: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data involving consecutive patients in a single tertiary center treated with custom-made fenestrated endografts for the aortic arch (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Ind) was undertaken. End points included technical success, perioperative mortality and morbidity, reintervention, and late survival.

    RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2017, there were 44 patients with a mean age of 67 ± 9 years (27 male [61%]) who were treated with fenestrated endografts for arch aneurysm (n = 11 [25%]), arch penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 6 [14%]), thoracoabdominal aneurysm with arch involvement (n = 11 [25%]), postdissection false lumen aneurysm (n = 13 [29%]), or lusorian artery aneurysm (n = 3 [7%]). The proximal landing zone was at Ishimaru zone 0 in 12 cases (27%), zone 1 in 27 cases (62%), and zone 2 in 5 cases (11%). Nine patients (20%) underwent a unilateral carotid-subclavian bypass, two (5%) a bilateral carotid-subclavian bypass, and four (9%) a subclavian transposition. In total, of the 73 target supra-aortic vessels (average of 1.7 target vessels per patient), 37 were treated with fenestrations and 36 with scallops. The mean operation time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast material volume were 215 ± 152 minutes, 33 ± 23 minutes, and 114 ± 45 mL, respectively. Technical success was 95% (42/44). The median intensive care unit and hospital stays were 3 ± 1 days and 7 ± 6 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 9% (4/44; one graft displacement and stroke, one retrograde type A dissection, one access complication and stroke, and one death of unknown cause). Major stroke occurred in three (7%), minor stroke in one (2%), temporary spinal cord ischemia in three (7%), and renal injury in three (7%) patients, whereas three (7%) patients required early reintervention. With mean follow-up of 18 ± 17 months, 10 more patients required secondary interventions, most of which (90%) were planned distal intervention to complete the repair of thoracoabdominal diseases. Overall survival rates were 78% ± 7% and 72% ± 8% at postoperative years 1 and 2, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fenestrated endograft repair of aortic arch disease is a feasible technique with a high technical success rate and acceptable rates of stroke and paraplegia. A high number of secondary interventions were needed to complete the treatment of underlying diseases.

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