CMR in Patients With Severe Myocarditis: Diagnostic Value of Quantitative Tissue Markers Including Extracellular Volume Imaging
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the accuracy of T2, T1, and extracellular volume (ECV) quantification as novel quantitative tissue markers in comparison with standard "Lake-Louise" cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) criteria to diagnose myocarditis.
BACKGROUND: Novel approaches using T2 and T1 mapping may overcome the limitations of signal intensity-based parameters, which would potentially result in a better diagnostic accuracy compared with standard CMR techniques in suspected myocarditis.
METHODS: CMR was performed in 104 patients with myocarditis and 21 control subjects at 1.5-T. Patients with myocarditis underwent CMR 2 weeks (interquartile range: 1 to 7 weeks) after presentation with new-onset heart failure (n = 66) or acute chest pain (n = 38). T2 and T1 mapping were implemented into a standard protocol including T2-weighted (T2w), early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) CMR, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR. T2 quantification was performed using a free-breathing, navigator-gated multiecho sequence. T1 quantification was performed using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence before and after administration of 0.075 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine. T2, T1, and ECV maps were generated using a plug-in for the OsiriX software (Pixmeo, Bernex, Switzerland) to calculate mean global myocardial T2, T1, and ECV values.
RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracies of conventional CMR were 70% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61% to 77%) for T2w CMR, 59% (95% CI: 56% to 73%) for EGE, and 67% (95% CI: 59% to 75%) for LGE. The diagnostic accuracies of mapping techniques were 63% (95% CI: 53% to 73%) for myocardial T2, 69% (95% CI: 60% to 76%) for native myocardial T1, and 76% (95% CI: 68% to 82%) for global myocardial ECV. The diagnostic accuracy of CMR was significantly improved to 90% (95% CI: 84% to 95%) by a stepwise approach, using the presence of LGE and myocardial ECV ≥27% as diagnostic criteria, compared with 79% (95% CI: 71% to 85%; p = 0.0043) for the Lake-Louise criteria.
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with clinical evidence for subacute, severe myocarditis, ECV quantification with LGE imaging significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy of CMR compared with standard Lake-Louise criteria.
- Forschungsinformationssystem des UKE