Acute Complex Endovascular Aortic Repair - Off-the-shelf vs. Surgeon-modified Stent Grafts,Akute komplexe endovaskuläre Aortenchirurgie – Off-the-Shelf vs. Surgeon-modified Stentgrafts
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of complex abdominal and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is challenging. Open surgical repair is a high-risk operation, especially in emergency cases. Endovascular aneurysm repair with a patient-specific custom-made stent graft in patients with symptomatic or ruptured complex aortic aneurysms is not possible, due to the manufacturing time required. In such cases, alternative endovascular techniques can be used.
RESULTS: The "off-the-shelf" and "surgeon-modified" stent grafts are valid options for the endovascular treatment of complex aneurysms in urgent and emergent patients. The former are standardised commercially manufactured fenestrated or branched stent grafts, which are available off-the-shelf with an anatomical feasibility in 50 - 80% of the patients. The "surgeon-modified" stent grafts refer to a technique, in which a commercially available stent graft is modified by the surgeon under sterile conditions directly before the implantation, in order to add the required fenestrations, scallops and/or branches. The modification takes approximately 60 - 120 min and haemodynamic stability of the patient is mandatory. Because of the off-label use of the commercial stent graft, detailed patient consent about the modification complications and risks should be performed whenever possible. A comparison of results on mortality and morbidity between "off-the-shelf" and "surgeon-modified" stent grafts has been published, although a direct comparison would be unfair for several reasons (different design, lack of extensive outcomes reports, long learning curve and different modification techniques).
CONCLUSION: The "surgeon-modified" and "off-the-shelf" fenestrated/branched stent grafts are used in the treatment of high-risk patients with symptomatic or contained ruptured complex aneurysms. The outcomes of the two techniques are good, although the long-term durability of the former should be further investigated.
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