Cystatin C and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery disease and normal or mildly reduced kidney function: results from the AtheroGene study
AIMS: Chronic kidney disease is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Cystatin C is a promising marker to reliably mirror renal function. The role of cystatin C in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and normal or mildly reduced kidney function is the subject of current investigation.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2162 patients, over the whole spectrum of CAD, baseline cystatin C concentrations were measured. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of < or =60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (n = 295) were excluded. In patients with complete follow-up information (n = 1827), 66 cardiovascular deaths were registered during a median follow-up of 3.65 years. Logarithmically transformed, standardized cystatin C was associated with cardiovascular death [hazard ratio: 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59-2.37, P < 0.001]. A potential threshold effect was observed; patients in the upper quartile had a 3.87-fold (95% CI: 2.33-6.42; P < 0.001) risk of mortality compared with the pooled lower quartiles. This risk association remained robust after adjustment for potential confounders including classical risk factors and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. Serum creatinine was not associated with the outcome in this group of patients with normal renal function.
CONCLUSION: Results of this prospective study show that cystatin C is a potent predictor of cardiovascular mortality beyond classical risk factors in patients with CAD and normal or mildly reduced kidney function.
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